Tough Choices or Tough Times State Consortium Publications

Tough Choices or Tough Times Executive Summary
The Executive Summary of Tough Choices or Tough Times by the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce explains how the dynamics of the global economy will lead to a steady decline in the American standard of living if this country does not undertake the first thorough overhaul of its education system in a century.

Comparative Governance, Administration and Finance for Elementary and Secondary Education in Selected Countries
This paper, commissioned by NCEE, considers educational developments in seven nations–Australia, Denmark, England, Finland, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Sweden–with particular attention to structural arrangements that lie at the heart of efforts to achieve change in public education on the scale described in Tough Choices or Tough Times.

Improving Teacher Training Provision
June 2006
This report provides the political history of the challenges faced by the government in improving teacher training provision in England from 1990 to 2005. It discusses three phases in the improvement of both teacher supply and teacher training in England: The reforms of the Conservative Government of 1988-1994, the creation of the Teacher Training Agency in 1994, and the reforms of the Teacher Training Agency from 2000-2005.

High Performance & Success in Education
April 2006
This paper analyzes the key indicators that might explain high performance and success in education in Flemish Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands. The report compares the results in education as a whole, and mathematics in particular, of both European countries with the results in the USA, as shown in the PISA-research.

Early Childhood Education: Lessons from the States and Abroad
July 2005
This report analyzes preschool practices within the United States and compares them to those of internationally competitive nations with a focus on attendance and access, funding and government involvement, and program quality and innovation.

Sources of Innovation & Creativity
July 2005
This report presents a comprehensive summary of current research and theory on the sources of innovation and creativity, both in individuals and organizations, concluding with recommendations for how education systems can best foster these attributes in students with a view to informing US workforce development efforts within the context of the new global economy.

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