Mr. Mandel joined NCEE after serving as the executive director of the Carnegie-IAS Commission on Mathematics and Science Education that identified a set of practical steps for improvement in this arena of K-14 education. He served as director of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board at The National Academies where he developed new initiatives in early childhood learning and the initial undergraduate mathematics experience. Previously, he directed MPR Associates’ Center for Curriculum and Professional Development where his work focused on state efforts to rescue low performing schools, on the education of vocational-technical education teachers, and on national initiatives to improve the performance of high schools. At MPR Mr. Mandel also oversaw the development of the item and test specifications for the proposed Voluntary National Tests in 4th-grade reading and 8th-grade mathematics. Before joining MPR, Mr. Mandel played a central role in creating the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards and designing its system of advanced certification for teachers. He oversaw the development of the Board’s core policies, the nation’s first advanced standards for teachers, and its initial education policy and reform portfolio, and collaborated with ETS and other leaders of the education measurement community to advance the technology of performance-based testing of teachers. Mr. Mandel began working on education policy issues in the early 70’s at the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, where his efforts were directed at the needs of poor and minority children. From 1973 to 1982 at the National Institute of Education, Mr. Mandel created and managed research programs on school finance equalization, family choice mechanisms, investment in human capital and postsecondary education finance and governance.